Human skin acts as a physical shield against any oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, however prolonged and repetitive exposure leads to an increased production of free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules that inflict damage on healthy skin cells. Of the many types of free radicals, the greatest concern to our skin is known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), formed by the metabolism of oxygen in the cells’ mitochondria. Our skin requires antioxidants to help combat the effect of ROS on the skin. When there is an imbalance in the ratio of ROS to antioxidants, this leaves the skin in a state of oxidative stress leading to signs of skin aging including dullness, pigmentation, and inflammation.
Similarly, when there is excess glucose present in the bloodstream, this triggers a reaction causing sugar molecules to bind to collagen and elastin fibres, known as Glycation. The crystallisation of these molecules accelerates the degradation of collagen, resulting in the cross-linking of wrinkles. During this process, Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are produced, harmful compounds that also contribute to oxidative stress. A daily dose of antioxidants and Anti-Glycation actives helps to effectively preserve collagen in the skin and maintain a youthful appearance.
Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant famous for its ability to visibly even skin tone and most importantly, its inhibition of the Tyrosinase enzyme, reducing the excess production of melanin in the skin, leading to hyperpigmentation. It also increases cellular turnover in the epidermis, helping to break down clusters of pigment and even skin tone.